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From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State Maximize

From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State

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From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State

A Land at the Crossroads in Myanmar

Kayah State, historically known as “Karenni State”, is an example of the reform dilemmas that the ethnic nationality peoples in Myanmar face today. Although the country’s smallest state, it reflects many of the challenges in peace-building and socio-political transition that need resolution in Myanmar at large: political impasse, a multiplicity of conflict actors, contested natural resources, land grabbing, humanitarian suffering, and divided communities seeking to rebuild after more than six decades of civil war.

Table of Contents:

Map of Myanmar


Karenni Timeline

1. Introduction

2. Ethnic Conflict and Changing Eras of Government

Karenni Territory and Kayah State

Karenni Independence and British Rule

Political Union and the Karenni State Anomaly

The Growth of Karenni Nationalism (1948-62)

The “Burmese Way to Socialism”, CPB and KNPP Split (1962-88)

What’s in a name? Kayah or Karenni State

The SLORC-SPDC era (1988-2011)

The Thein Sein Government and the NLD Revival

Karenni Conflict Map

The NLD Assumes Office

3. Karenni Ceasefire Negotiations

The SLORC-SPDC era: Views from the Ground

The Failed 1995 Ceasefire: the KNPP View

The 2012 KNPP Ceasefire

Impact of the 2012 KNPP Ceasefire

The 2015 Nationwide Ceasefire Agreement

The United Nationalities Federal Council (UNFC)

4. Karenni Armed Organisations and National Peace

The 21st Century Panglong Conference

The “Eight Points” of the UNFC

The Second “Panglong-21” Meeting

Chart: Ethnic Armed Organisations, April 2018

Renewed Crises and Contemporary Impasse

5. Karenni Armed Organisations and Political Representation

A State of Deadlock

Ethnic-based Forces in the Field

Trading Arms for Business

Initiatives for Inter-Party Cooperation

Karenni Armed Organisations 2018

Communities, Representation and Governance

4 | From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State: A Land at the Crossroads in Myanmar transnationalinstitute

6. General Elections and Political Reform

The 1990 General Election and Political Suppression

The National Convention and the 2008 Constitution

Karenni “Vote No” Referendum Campaign

The 2010 General Election and Quasi-Civilian Government

The 2015 General Election

High Profile Candidates

The “Hybrid” NLD-Tatmadaw Government

David versus Goliath”

The 2017 By-Elections

7. Communities in Transition

Testing the Limits

Conflict, Human Rights and Displacement

Pya Ley Pya” Campaigns and “Su See” Villages

Land Grabbing

Service Provision

Karenni Customary Land Systems

Social Relations

Civil Society

Ethnic Identities in Transition

Karenni Ethnicity

Kayan Territory and Identity

8. Development Directions and Dilemmas

Ceasefires and Economic Transition

Karenni Natural Resources Map



Lawpita Blues: Risking My Life For Your Electricity


Mining in Mawchi: A Ceasefire in Microcosm


Opium Cultivation


International Aid

9. Conclusions

Appendix: Overview of Karenni Armed Organisations




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From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State

From War to Peace in Kayah (Karenni) State

Paperback A4 report

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